Skyscrapers are one of the most iconic structures of any modern city or town. They represent power, luxury, and prestige to whatever culture they belong to. That said, the sheer scale and engineering required to construct skyscrapers are astonishing.
The skyscraper construction process generally involves site selection, design phase, excavation and foundation preparation, installing the steel frame, external cladding, and interior finishes. After that, the maintenance team steps in to ensure the building remains in the best condition for use.
The rest of this article will explain each of these steps in more detail. Keep reading for further information and insights into the type of materials used when building a skyscraper.
Skyscraper Construction Phases
Like most construction projects, building a skyscraper usually takes place in six steps.
1. Site Selection
The site selection process is one of the critical stages of any skyscraper construction project. It determines whether or not the structure can be constructed and considers how it’ll affect the city’s policies and policies relating to other facilities in the area.
Site selection involves a detailed process of examining the foundation soil, adding any pollution to the surrounding area, and ensuring that it doesn’t affect other structures around it.
Other critical elements during the site selection process include:
- Performing a thorough analysis of local environmental conditions such as rainfall and wind direction.
- Considering any seismic activity in the area.
- Estimating the construction costs in the selected area.
- Assessing how much land is available for construction.
- Checking the relevant local and federal government policies.
Importance of Site Selection
When constructing skyscrapers anywhere in the world, it’s imperative to make sure that they’re built on stable ground with minimal risk of change due to the effects of earthquakes or other natural disasters.
If this step isn’t carried out properly, there could be negative consequences for all parties involved.
For example, the construction company may have to rebuild the site if there are any issues, or third-party companies could sue them for causing damage to their property.
Additionally, there must be no legal restrictions when building skyscrapers because they can cause problems if not considered during construction.
For example, a city may have a policy stating that no buildings can be higher than a certain height in the area. Suppose the construction company ignores this and builds a skyscraper. In that case, they could be fined or imprisoned for breaking this law.
Site selection is also crucial because it enables architects to design structures within their planned environment rather than designing structures that look out of place when built.
With the right location selected, the architect can then prepare architectural drawings and work with engineers to ensure that their ideas fit correctly into their surroundings once built.
2. Architectural Design and Engineering
When it comes to building skyscrapers, architectural design and engineering are the most critical phases.
The architect’s drawings define how the building will look after construction is finished. On the other hand, the engineers’ calculations determine whether or not the structure can stand up on its own.
In most cases, the architects work with civil engineers and other designers to create specific plans for their skyscraper that account for all systems within the building (such as plumbing and electricity). This initial phase is called schematic design.
Schematic design is typically followed by a detailed design phase where more precise plans are drawn out.
Creating these detailed designs involves communication between different groups of experts working together to complete the plans. These groups typically include:
- Structural and civil engineers – responsible for executing and implementing the architects’ designs.
- Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) designers – responsible for designing systems such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning or HVAC.
- Architects – responsible for designing unique features of the buildings such as internal decorations.
- Project managers – coordinate between all parties involved in creating the final architectural drawings.
Meanwhile, it’s also essential to ensure that other works have been done successfully before a skyscraper is built.
For example, if the ground is unstable, it won’t be easy to create a stable foundation. Thus, it’s essential that all of this work is completed and the site selected before the architects and engineers get started with their drawings and calculations.
3. Excavation and Foundation Preparation
Foundation preparation is one of the most crucial parts of any skyscraper construction project, typically carried out by civil engineers.
As its name suggests, this phase includes preparing the location for an underground foundation that can support the weight of a skyscraper.
The process begins by digging deep into the ground to create a foundation. This foundation is typically made up of columns of concrete that extend deep into the earth below. These concrete pillars support most of the weight of the building, allowing it to stand upright with its steel frame on top.
This enables an engineer to determine how much weight the underground foundation can hold. This data is then used in conjunction with architectural design and engineering calculations to help ensure that the structure won’t collapse once it’s finished.
4. Construction of the Steel Frame
After exploration has been completed and all necessary preparation work is complete, construction workers create a large steel frame that holds everything together during operation.
To do this, workers first bring prefabricated pieces into place using cranes, then connect them with bolts that are tightened to hold the structure in place. This process is repeated multiple times until all of the steel beams have been put into position.
Most skyscrapers have a skeletal frame of vertical columns and horizontal beams extending upwards up to 100 stories. Atop this core skeleton, various types of cladding materials are added to create the outer walls of the building.
5. External Cladding
The exterior part of a skyscraper is called cladding, which is essentially just another word for external material. There are many different types of cladding used in modern buildings, including glass, steel panels, and concrete.
This phase usually involves a team of workers who pour concrete over the entire surface area, giving it a solid and durable outer shell.
This process is repeated multiple times until all exterior surfaces have been covered with a layer of concrete.
Glass can also be used as cladding for skyscrapers in some cases, though this tends to be more expensive than other options.
There are two main reasons why exterior cladding is essential:
- It protects the internal structure of the building (especially the steel beams) from external factors such as wind and rain damage.
- It can be aesthetically pleasing; for example, tall buildings worldwide use brightly colored glass to reflect light and make themselves appear more attractive to onlookers.
6. Installation of Interior Finishes and Fittings
The final step in most construction projects is installing interior finishes and fittings such as wiring, plumbing, doors, windows, elevators, heating systems, and fire protection equipment.
These features are typically installed by separate contractors or specialist groups within a construction company who work according to architectural plans created during the schematic design phase.
This process is fundamental to skyscraper building because the safety of workers, occupants, and visitors depends on it.
As with any commercial construction project, maintaining a safe work environment is one of the highest priorities for builders. To accomplish this goal, installation work usually requires the entire site to be cordoned off from visitors or potential hazards when materials are being installed on the structure.
Crucial Factors When Building a Skyscraper
When building skyscrapers, there are several crucial factors that are considered to ensure the structure is built without any glitches or problems.
- The foundation of a skyscraper must be designed and installed correctly to handle its weight, withstand natural disasters like earthquakes, and provide a robust platform for future construction work.
- All materials used throughout the project must be tested beforehand to make sure they can withstand the harsh conditions encountered at high altitudes.
- Engineers should identify the most suitable architectural design before construction begins so that they can choose an optimal steel frame system with minimal challenges during assembly.
- Given the potential hazards of working on such tall structures, proficient workers are required who know exactly what they’re doing.
- Before even starting construction, it’s crucial to follow all applicable safety precautions and employ the best possible materials for the skyscraper project.
Once a skyscraper is completed, there are several precautions taken to ensure it lasts for years to come.
Inspecting the Building Regularly
Regularly checking the skyscraper’s walls, windows, doors, and foundations is important. Cracks or any other potential damages could affect the building’s structural integrity.
These problems need to be addressed right away, as soon as they are identified.
Also, all systems (heating, ventilation, fire protection) need to be inspected and any parts that don’t work to their full potential need to be replaced.
Ensuring the Building Is Properly Insulated
Skyscrapers need to be properly insulated to protect against heat and cold by wrapping any exposed beams with building insulation.
This is particularly important if the windows aren’t double-paned or well-sealed because it can reduce how much heat or cold gets into the building.
Rainwater Diversion Systems
It’s important that any roofs on the skyscraper have a rainwater diversion system to channel water away from the building and avoid flooding.
This is particularly important if the skyscraper is constructed in an area that experiences frequent heavy rainfall.
Keeping All Escalators and Elevators in Working Order
It helps to ensure the skyscraper’s escalators, elevators, and other related equipment are working correctly at all times.
If any issues with these systems arise, it’s critical that repairs or replacements are performed immediately so that they don’t pose a safety hazard.
Keeping Track of Any Broken Windows or Glass
Broken glass, whether from an accident or natural disaster (such as a hurricane), can pose a serious safety hazard if not repaired right away.
Broken panes of glass should be replaced with modern glass types that are less likely to break into dangerous shards because they undergo special thermal and chemical processing to make them stronger and safer for use in tall buildings.
Keeping the Building’s Fire Extinguishers in Good Condition
If there’s a fire in the building, it’s essential that employees and visitors know exactly where the nearest fire extinguisher is located.
Building operations personnel need to ensure these devices are in good shape by inspecting them regularly and replacing any parts that might be damaged or not working properly.
Smoke Detectors and Fire Alarms
Smoke detectors and fire alarms need to be installed in public buildings so that everyone is aware of any potential fires. These devices can also help firefighters know exactly where a fire may be located when they arrive on the scene.
A professional skyscraper maintenance service provider is often consulted to ensure the building is safe and properly working throughout the year.
Skyscraper Construction: FAQs
What Is the Best Material To Build a Skyscraper?
Steel is the best material for building skyscrapers. It has relatively high strength-to-weight ratios, making it sturdy. Besides, it’s malleable, strong, and can withstand wear and tear, making steel structures highly durable once treated.
Are Skyscrapers Built To Last?
Skyscrapers are, in general, highly durable structures that have a lifespan of many decades. Over time, they can become less stable due to environmental factors such as earthquakes, rain, and wind damage.
It’s vital to ensure that proper materials are used for steel frames and exterior cladding throughout construction to ensure the building has a long lifespan.
How Do Skyscrapers Not Fall Over?
Skyscrapers don’t fall over because most of them are constructed with a steel skeleton, making them less likely to topple over because it resists lateral forces (such as high winds) that could push it off balance or cause structural failure.
However, if a skyscraper does experience a structural failure, it can still fall over. This can result from a lack of proper bracing or a problem with the foundation.
To prevent this from happening, engineers use building analysis methods such as structural modeling to ensure skyscrapers are built as sturdily as possible before construction even begins.
- Forbes: 7 Supertall Buildings in the Works Around the Globe
- U.S. Department of Agriculture: Part 645 Construction Inspection National Engineering Handbook
- Western Michigan University: Schematic Design Phase
- University of Illinois: Site Selection Process
- International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology: A Review Study on Uses of Steel in Construction