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Term Definition

The points on an atom to which valences of other elements can bond.


The intersection of two inclined surfaces.

Vapor Retarder

Material used to slow the flow of water vapor through walls and other spaces where this vapor may condense at a lower temperature.


A thin sheet of material used to cover another surface.


The liquid portion of a paint composed mainly of solvents, resins, or oils.

Velvet Construction

Carpet formed by joining the pile, stuffer, and weft yarns with double warp yarns.


A thin sheet of material used to cover another surface.

Veneer Gypsum Base

A gypsum board product designed to serve as the base for the application of gypsum veneer plaster.

Veneer Plaster

Calcined gypsum plaster specially formulated to provide specific workability, strength, hardness and abrasion resistance characteristics when applied in thin coats (1/16" to 3/32" nom.) over veneer gypsum base or other approved base. The term thin coat plaster is sometimes used in reference to veneer plaster.

Vent Stack

That part of the soil stack above the highest vent branch.

Vents, Plumbing

Pipes permitting the waste system to operate under atmospheric pressure. They allow air to enter and leave the system, preventing water in the traps from being siphoned off. If this occurs, sewer gases can enter the building.


An insulation material or aggregate made of expanded mica.

Vertical Load

A load acting in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the horizon.

Vertical Shear

The tendency of one part of a member to move vertically in relationship to the adjacent part.


The resistance of a liquid to flow under an applied load or pressure.


A process of using high kiln temperatures to fuse the surface of grains of clay products so they are impervious to the passage of water.

Volatile Organic Compounds

Compounds released to the atmosphere as a coating dries.


The unit of potential difference or electromotive force. One volt applied across a resistance of one ohm results in a current flow of one ampere.


The force, pressure, or electromotive force that causes electric current to flow in an electric circuit.

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