Glossary: T


T-SillA type of sill construction used in balloon framing in which the header joist is placed inside the studs and is butted by the floor joists.
TapestryA fabric upon which colored threads are woven by hand to produce a design.
TeePrecast concrete or metal structural members in the shape of the letter T.
Temper DesignationA specification of the temper or metallurgical condition of an aluminum alloy.
TemperatureMeasurement of the intensity (not quantity) of heat. The Fahrenheit (°F) scale places the freezing point of water at 32° and the boiling point at 212°. The Centigrade or Celsius (°C) scale, used by most countries and in scientific work, places the freezing point of water at 0° and the boiling point at 100°. On the Kelvin (K) scale, the unit of measurement equals the Celsius degree and measurement begins at absolute zero 0° (-273°C).
Tempered GlassHeat-treated glass that has great resistance to breakage and increased toughness.
TemperingThe reheating of hardened steel to decrease hardness and increase toughness.
Tempering GlassA process used to strengthen glass by raising the temperature of the glass to near the softening point and then blowing jets of cold air on both sides suddenly to chill it and create surface tension in the glass.
TendonA steel bar or cable in prestressed concrete used to impart stress in the concrete.
Tensile Bond StrengthThe ability of a mortar to resist forces tending to pull the masonry apart.
Tensile StrengthMaximum tensile stress that can be developed in a given material under axial tensile loading. Also the measure of a material’s ability to withstand stretching.
Tensile StressThe stress per unit area of the cross-section of a material that resists elongation.
TensionForce that tends to pull the particles of a body apart.
Terra-CottaA hard unglazed clay tile used for ornamental work.
TerrazzoA finish-floor material made up of concrete and an aggregate of marble chips that after curing is ground smooth and polished.
Texture PlasterA finish plaster used to produce rough, textured finished surfaces.
Thermal BreakMaterial with a low thermal conductivity that is inserted between materials, such as metal with high thermal conductivity, to slow the passage of cold or heat through the highly conductive material.
Thermal BridgeA thermal conducting material that conducts heat through an insulated assembly of materials.
Thermal Conductance (C)Thermal conductance is the same as thermal conductivity except it is based on a specified thickness of material rather than on one inch as used for conductivity.
Thermal ConductionThe process of heat transfer through a solid by transmitting kinetic energy from one molecule to the next.
Thermal Conductivity (k)The rate of heat flow through one square foot of Btu per hour when a temperature difference of one degree Fahrenheit is maintained between the two surfaces.
Thermal ConvectionHeat transmission by the circulation of a liquid or heated air or gas.
Thermal ExpansionAll materials expand and contract to some extent with changes in temperature. The Thermal Coefficient of Linear Expansion is expressed in “Inches Per Inch Per Degree Fahrenheit.” Example: gypsum board has a coefficient of 9.0 x 10-6 in. per in. per °F. This means that with an increase in temperature of 50°, a gypsum board wall 100 ft. in length will have a linear expansion of .54″ or an excess of 1/2″. The expansion characteristics of some other building materials are more pronounced; a 50° temperature increase would produce expansion in a 100′ length of approx. 3/4″ in aluminum, 3/8″ in steel and 1/2″ in concrete.
Thermal InsulationA material that has a high resistance to heat flow.
Thermal PropertiesThe behaviour of a material when subjected to a change in termperature.
Thermal RadiationThe transmission of heat from a hot surface to a cool one by means of electromagnetic waves.
Thermal Resistance (R)Resistance of a material or assembly to the flow of heat. It is the reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficient: (1/C, or 1/U)For insulating purposes, low “C” and “U” values and high “R” values are the most desirable.
ThermoformingA process in which heated plastic sheets are made to assume the contour of a mold by using the force of air pressure, vacuum, or mechanical stretching.
ThermoplasticsPlastics that soften by heating and reharden when cooled without changing the chemical composition.
Thermosetting PlasticsCured plastics that are chemically cross-linked and when heated will not soften but will be degraded.
ThermostatA temperature-sensitive instrument that controls the flow of electricity to units used to heat and cools spaces in a building.
ThresholdRaised member at the floor within the door jamb. Its purpose is to provide a divider between dissimilar flooring materials or serve as a thermal, sound or water barrier.
Through-penetration Fire StopA system for sealing through-penetrations in fire-resistant floors, walls and ceilings.
Through-penetrationsThrough-penetration, or “poke-through” openings as they are sometimes called, are holes that penetrate an entire floor or wall assembly to allow the passage of piping, ducts, conduit, cable trays, electrical cables, communications wiring, etc.
ThrowThe horizontal or vertical distance an airstream travels after leaving the air outlet before it loses velocity.
Tieback AnchorsSteel anchors grouted into holes drilled in the excavation wall to hold the sheeting, thus reducing the number of braces required.
TimberWood structural members having a minimum m thickness of 6 inches (140 mm).
Timber JoineryThe joining of structural wood members using wood joints, such as the mortise and tenon.
Time-Temperature CurveRate of rise of temperature in a fire-testing furnace.
ToenailMethod of fastening two boards together as in a “T” by driving nails into the board that forms the stem of the “T” at an angle so they enter the other board and cross each other.
ToleranceThe permissible deviation from a given dimension or the acceptable variation in size from the given dimension.
Tongue-and-Groove JointJoint where the projection or “tongue” of one member engages the mating groove of the adjacent member to minimize relative deflection and air infiltration; widely used in sheathing, flooring and paneling. Tongues may be in “V,” round or square shapes.
TopcoatThe final coat of paint.
TorqueA twisting or rotating action.
Torsion StrengthThe maximum stress a material will withstand before fracturing under a twisting force.
Torsion TestA test used to ascertain the behavior of materials subject to torsion.
ToughnessA measure of the ability of a material to absorb energy from a blow or shock without fracturing.
TransformerAn electrical device used to convert an incoming electric current from one voltage to another voltage.
Transmission Loss (TL)Essentially the amount, in decibels, by which sound power is attenuated by passing from one side of a structure to the other. TL is independent of the rooms on each side of the structure and theoretically independent of the area and edge conditions of the structure.
TrapA device used to maintain a water seal against sewer gases that back up the waste pipe. Usually, each fixture has a trap.
TreadHorizontal plane or surface of a stair step.
TrimmerDouble joists or rafters framing the opening of a stairway well, dormer opening, etc.
TrowelingProducing a final smooth finish on freshly poured concrete with a steel-bladed tool after the concrete has been floated.
TrussOpen, lightweight framework of members, usually designed to replace a large beam where spans are great.
Truss PlateA steel plate used to strengthen the joints in truss assemblies.
Truss-Framed SystemAn assembled truss uint made up of a floor truss, wall stud, and a roof truss.
Tufted ConstructionCarpet formed by stitching the pile yarn through the backing material.
TwistWarping in which one or more corners of a piece o wood twist out of the plane of the piece.
Two-Way Concrete Joist SystemFloor and roof construction that has two perpendicular systems of parallel intersecting joists.
Two-Way Flat PlateReinforced concrete construction in which the main reinforcement runs in two directions and both surfaces are flat planes and it is supported by columns.
Two-Way Flat SlabReinforced concrete floor or roof construction in which a two-way flat plate is supported by columns with drop panels or column capitals.